Inflation Explained


Whip Inflation Now button.  Photo source: Wikimedia Commons

Can we talk?  Is there something that drives you absolutely bananas?  Something that hits you the way fingernails screetch on a chalkboard (remember those?)  I am suffering through one of those experiences now and figure that by talking it out we might be able to help each other.  The topic is inflation.

My undergraduate major was economics.  This means that I lapped up those classes that most of you despised and struggled with.  And trust me, you are a lot more normal than me on this.  Which is why you don’t notice the simply awful lack of understanding about the basic topic of inflation.

If I had a dollar (we have to bring money into any discussion of economics, it’s just in the Rule Book) for every time I heard some newscaster or brainy guy talk about how “these hospitals keep raising their prices, which fuels inflation” I would be sitting on a beach somewhere (though probably still fuming).  One has virtually nothing to do with the other.  Here, let me help.  You will thank me.

Here is the key – there is a difference between “real” and “money”.  Real is, well, real.  Money is not.  OK, money can be real.  If you are cold and have enough of it you could burn the stuff.  Or you  could blow your nose into it.  Or you could roll it up and use if for a doorstop.  But these examples are all stupid because nobody uses money for this stuff.  You use money to convert your work into a unit of savings and then to convert again into real things to consume or other real things that you might invest in.  Stuff is real.  Money is just a medium of exchange that makes a good way to measure and trade all the real stuff.

Inflation is purely about the value of money.  You intuitively know that when there is more of something it becomes less valuable and vise versa.  After all, this is why sand is not worth as much as gold is.  Well, money works the same way.


In the most basic economy that consists of ten people, ten apples and ten dollars, every apple is worth one dollar and every dollar is worth one apple, and every person who wants an apple can get one for a buck.

Let’s make two tweaks to our little economy:  First, if you subtract 5 apples from the economy, then they will double in value  – an apple will be worth two dollars and a dollar will be worth half of an apple.

A different tweak would be this.  The original ten apples are still there but we introduce ten more dollars into the economy.  An apple will still double in value to $2 and each dollar will still be worth half of an apple.

In both of these examples the same thing happens – an apple goes from $1 to $2.  The first example is not inflation.  It is about real changes in the apple market caused by bad weather, an apple tree blight, or maybe a bazillion other things.  It is about something real – there are fewer apples.

The second example IS inflation.  Nothing has happened in the apple market.  There were ten apples before  and there are still ten apples.  What has happened is that there is more money than there used to be and that money is worth less than it was.

The problem is that no matter how smart any of us might be, from where we sit it is almost impossible to tell which one of these two things is happening at any given time as we watch a gallon of gas, a quart of milk or a month of cable TV increase in cost.  And in the real world the oil refiners and the dairy farmers and the purveyors of entertainment don’t know either.  They just know that they are responding to signals in their particular market and raising prices where they can.  Is it because more people want to buy what they have?  Or is there a looming shortage or scarcity in their product or service?  Or is it because the dollars everyone is paying with are slowly and imperceptibly evaporating in value?

Well here is one way to tell.  If something strange is going on in, say, the market for health insurance or higher education that is sending its price skyward (as we have seen over the last, oh, twenty or more years) then the prices of some other things will be going down.  This is because all of us together cannot just keep buying more of everything.  After all, the credit cards eventually max out.  So booming prices in some things lead to flat or decreasing prices in other things as consumers shift their buying habits.

With genuine inflation everything is going up.  OK, maybe not everything.  Used Beanie Babies are not going up like everything else.  But they will still go for more than they otherwise would have.  So it is still hard to tell because everything is still independently bouncing around in comparison with everything else.  But in the aggregate (as my econ professors used to say) everything is going up.  Because the worth of a buck is going down.


A good way to keep a weather eye out for real, honest to goodness inflation is to watch commodity prices – prices of the most basic stuff that is used to make most of the other stuff that we buy.  Oil can go up or down depending on the state of the Middle East.  Wheat can do up or down depending on whether it rained enough in Nebraska.  Pork Bellies can go up or down depending on whether the Atkins Diet gets a second wind.  And in fact all of these things will go up and down for these reasons and others like them.  But odds are that they all can’t be going up (in roughly similar ways) unless the dollar that they are all being measured in is going down.

Think of dollar pricing like a thermometer.  Water boils at 212 degrees F. at sea level.  We know this because we know what a degree is.  There is no Federal Reserve messing with how much heat a degree measures.  A Fahrenheit degree today is the same as a Fahrenheit degree in 1867 or in 1724 when Mr. Fahrenheit defined it.  So when the water boils you know that it has hit 212.  But what if a Fahrenheit degree was subject to inflation and without anyone telling us we all got new thermometers marked with degrees that measured slightly less heat than the old ones?  My water would no longer boiling at 212 but would instead be boiling at, say, 226.  Here is a hint: It wouldn’t be the water (which is real), but would be a change in the value of the new Fahrenheit degree.

You can also think of a bottle of liquor.  Two shots of 90 proof bourbon will be enough so that I should not drive.  But what if I can suddenly drink three shots before having to call a cab?  It is possible that I have developed more of a tolerance to alcohol but it is also possible that someone has watered down the liquor.  My higher tolerance is not inflation because it is something real.  But watered down liquor is very much like inflation because each gulp would contain less alcohol.

So when our dollar is diluted or cheapened or depreciated, everything measured in those dollars will reflect a higher price because it will take more cheap dollars to equal the more expensive dollars that we have become used to.


In 1974 President Gerald Ford gave a speech in which he urged us all to action to “Whip Inflation Now.”  The public was urged to send in ideas of how we could all stop inflation by doing things like driving less or growing our own vegetables.  The red WIN buttons were a visible part of this plan.

If you have been paying any attention at all, you now understand that nothing you or I could have done in 1974 (or today) could have had the slightest effect on inflation.  Because you and I were not the ones in charge of the number of dollars in circulation.  President Ford was not a stupid man, but like plenty of well-educated and reasonably intelligent adults he had no idea about what inflation really was.  Or he was cynically trying to divert our attention from a government that had failed at one of its most basic responsibilities – to insure the value of its currency.

So there you have it.  The next time someone talks about auto prices or interest rates or health care costs or price increases from these tariffs that are in the news “causing inflation” you now know that this person doesn’t understand what inflation is.  You will have also earned the right to look that person in the eye and say “Sorry, that’s not inflation, those are just normal fluctuations in the prices for those things.”  Inflation is about cheapened money.  Nothing else.  The rest of it is just a symptom.


22 thoughts on “Inflation Explained

  1. Thank you for this. Having been doused in my daughter’s economics class recently, it was great in explaining things abstractly while you’ve applied it to practical things.

    A tangential thought….I deal with print and broadcast media with some frequency. Some of these people are sharp as a tack and others, well, let’s just say I remember some life lessons from the movie Bambi. Seeing some of those latter ones, it worries me that if some easily grasped concepts can be bungled or misunderstood so readily (such as water freezing at 32 and how it also runs downhill) what is the true accuracy of the information we get from the talking heads on television? Which leads right back to one of your first statements.


    • It is true that those in media have a low economic literacy quotient. But they have a lot of company. It is more concerning to me when those actually involved in running the country have such a lack of understanding. A situation more common than it should be.
      On the flip side, did you know that Ronald Reagan’s college degree had been in economics?

      Liked by 1 person

      • That does seem familiar. There’s also been another GOP President with a degree in economics since Reagan but I shan’t say anything more. 🙂


  2. Inflation is a statistic I’ve long used in posts on the courthouse blog to try and hedge against vast building cost discrepancies over the past several hundred years even though its irrelevant for forming a true picture without some context, ive come to realize. A crash course this morning was helpful in my understanding.


    • It is all a gross simplification, of course. The problem is that it is so hard to accurately measure. The Consumer Price Index is a rough approximation, but can be quite misleading. Comparing the cost of a gallon of milk is pretty accurate because milk is still milk. But comparing anything with technology (like a car or a computer) gets into a swamp of having to account for how an the apple is now an orange.

      Even in buildings you are trying to compare the costs of hand-crafted stone and wood carvings with the cost of the assembly of mass produced parts. It is hard to separate the inflation component from the what-you-get-from-the-money component.


  3. This post should be required reading for — well, EVERYONE. I can’t remember ever reading a clearer explanation of the concept, or better analogies. Heck … I may have even *enjoyed* economics if you had been my professor! Thank you for making me just a little bit better-informed today, J.P.


    • Aw, shucks. I had a couple of professors who were disappointed that I chose law school over a graduate degree in Econ. I wonder what life would be like now as a tenured professor somewhere with grad assistants doing all of my work.

      Liked by 1 person

      • It’s not too late, J.P. — you could still become a professor! Maybe it’s too late to achieve tenure, but at least you’d still have the pleasure of watching all those graduate assistants do your work. 🙂

        Liked by 1 person

    • Well thank you. I started banging this out one day in a fit of frustration and decided that it was closest to ready of anything in my pile of paragraphs. I was afraid that this might be too dry, but it is not performing badly.


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  5. Thanks you for making crystal clear something I thought I understood (I didn’t) and something I felt kinda guilty for not understanding better. It seemed so complex, but it’s really playground rules and first grade math.

    While I’m disheartened that my elected officials show no clear understanding of these concepts, I am very happy that I now have an easy way to explain this to my teens whose knowledge of how money works is “I have some in my wallet or I don’t” and who are learning in he classroom all sorts of advanced concepts they can pull out during a trivia game but absolutely nothing about how to function as an adult.

    Three cheers to you for such a clear and valuable post. Whether or not you’ll be calling a cab depends entirely on inflation. 😉


    • Thank you for the compliment! One real world factor I probably should have touched upon is why this matters. The really pernicious thing about inflation is that it hides real information we need to make decisions. It can trick us into doing things we wouldn’t ordinarily do and once we expect it we build it into our expectations. “Oh look, a 2% raise! Let’s get that new car” or “Rats, only a 2% raise. We are just staying even, best not splurge on that car yet” are 2 very different decisions that could be made from the information we get.


  6. This drives me nuts too, both as an economics teacher and a human being. Don’t get me started on corporate taxation or corporate bail outs. 😉


  7. Well, I learned something here. I always thought “Whip Inflation Now” originated with Jimmy Carter. Now I’m learning it was Gerald Ford. Of course, I probably knew that at the time, but I was in engineering school then, and believe it or not, we didn’t have to take a single Econ course at UC Berkeley. Carter, a degreed engineer, was the first president I voted for. Something tells me that maybe he didn’t take economics at Georgia Tech or the Naval Academy either. In any case, I don’t recall ever hearing the term until after I graduated and he was president.


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